• Emerging markets facing American hegemony over the global pharmaceutical industry


    10 companies account for one-third of the market .. 6 of them based in the United States
    Emerging markets facing American hegemony over the global pharmaceutical industry


    huge financial offer made by Pfizer Inc. raised American pharmaceutical industry, to buy its rival the British-Swedish drug company ' AstraZeneca ', many questions about the financial capacity of the major companies in the industry. The offer amounted to $ 106 billion, although the British side rejected so far, but the deal if in accordance with this provision, it would be the biggest deal acquisition by a foreign company to another in Britain in history. The global pharmaceutical industry is characterized by a strong focus, about 15 international companies dominate the capabilities, and the top 10 companies controlled by one third of the global market, each company's sales exceed $ 10 billion a year, with the profit rate of up to 30 per cent.
    United States occupies a special niche in the industry, the six largest companies based in America, while four are in Europe, amid expectations that America, Europe and Japan control 85 percent of the pharmaceutical industry in this century. The pharmaceutical research sector to play a leading role in the industry, compared to all sectors of research in other industrial branches, continued research in pharmaceutical development, even in times of economic crisis, drug research spending in the world five times what was spent on the development of the space industry, aviation and defense per year, four times the global spending on chemical industry, two and a half times what was spent for the software development and computer services.
    Dr. Helen Paxman says, specialized in the pharmaceutical industry and Executive Director at the Association of British pharmaceutical industries ' economic ', there are a number of factors are driving the President's concentration, and what might be considered to be monopolistic in the industry. The pharmaceutical industry is very expensive, both in initial investment-construction plants research and development units-or in the process of research later, pharmaceutical companies is its location based on their ability to produce new drugs more efficient, this process may require continuous research ranging from 10-15 years, investments in this area in order to be effective and profitable must be billions.
    Dr. Helen points out another economic in the pharmaceutical companies make corporate monopolistic inevitable as described, is that most major pharmaceutical companies are its diversity, it is mainly focused on the production of pharmaceutical products, the most prominent examples include: British-Swedish company Zeneca, almost 100 per cent of its revenues come from sales of medicines, two of the top 15 companies in the pharmaceutical industry in the world with revenues from sales of pharmaceutical products less than 50 Per cent of total sales, notably Johnson &\ Johnson is the world's largest drug company, as a result of their large financial developed departments of production and development of other health care products. And raise the issue of most of the major global pharmaceutical industry companies in the United States debate between senior staff in the industry, some people consider that this must be dealt with as it is, there is no difficulty with it, this place not only through possession of Washington real the ingredients, pharmaceutical market in America is the largest in the world. And corporate America is a leader in the field of research Pharmaceutical, 80 per cent of global research and development in biotechnology are on American soil, the available figures show that US pharmaceutical companies spent about 85-90 billion dollars last year on pharmaceutical research, while global spending about $ 140 billion. Dr. Albert chrisil Professor of international economics at the London School of Economics, said the offer made by Pfizer to buy Zeneca dawn artificially and non-economic sentiment in Britain, claiming that the American companies want to control the British pharmaceutical industry, the remote command of these perceptions, market President in the world pharmaceutical industry concentrated in America, and to some extent Japan and some European countries such as Germany, Switzerland and France, while in Britain they represent 4 per cent of the global market, it is surprising that the A discussion on ' where is the headquarters of the parent company? 'The most important is that we encourage pharmaceutical companies to research for new drug discoveries here in British research labs, we have to learn the Indian automakers.
    And throws some light on another corner for what the American drug industry dominance, the World Health Organization global pharmaceutical market is estimated at 300 billion dollars and expected to reach 450 billion dollars within three years, the International Federation of pharmaceutical industries associations that figure jumps to more than $ 1 trillion. The case lies in that US companies as a result of the enormous profitability rates to finance huge advertising amounts to nearly one third of the income from sales, nearly double what was spent on research and development, and this massive spending on advertising and publicity corporate America to always be in the foreground. Dr. Robert Deci, Assistant Professor in the Faculty of pharmacy of the University of Cardiff for the ' economic ', that the current pattern of spending heavily on advertising for medicines for pharmaceutical companies America creates strain for competitors, especially small and medium enterprises, located in between lifting the development budget for the discovery of new medicines, vaccines or increase advertising expenses to promote Of what you produce. Adds Robert for the ' economic ' that company size alone does not guarantee success, but most of us giant, huge financial returns, enabling them to achieve rapid growth either alone or through the integration of smaller companies also want Pfizer to do with Zeneca, the merger enables us companies to open new areas for kinds of medicines were not produced before, the problem lies mainly on the high cost of producing the drug. According to the International Federation of pharmaceutical industries, the cost of producing a new drug on average 1.3 billion dollars, up from only $ 138 million in 1975, research in the pharmaceutical industry over research that often ends in failure, but due to the financial and research capabilities, Washington continues to have the upper hand in the industry.
    US superiority is currently facing challenges derived from Europe but also from the emerging markets, by next year will amount to spending emerging economies on medication about 28 per cent of total spending, while not over 12 per cent in 2005, and this increase will coincide with the decline in the share of the United States from 41 per cent to 31 per cent next year, and the decline in the share of Europe from 27 per cent in 2005 to 19 per cent. Some consider that increasing rates of growth and higher living standards in emerging markets can allocate more investment for pharmaceuticals, pharmaceutical market will reach 166 billion dollars in China by 2017, making it fertile ground for local businesses wishing to invest in this area, although the African markets are still relatively small, but it is expected to reach its $ 30 billion in 2016.
    This growth is not without negative remarks to a large number of workers in the pharmaceutical industry in the West, Dr. Smithٌadal of British Association for pharmaceutical industries ' economic ', refers to a set of negative factors help to recover pharmaceutical industries in emerging markets. Adds Smith for the ' economic ' pharmaceutical research measures and safety procedures required for pharmaceutical industries in emerging economies, weak and non-integrated compared with developed countries, this makes the company in a country like China, much less in cost compared to developed countries. As there are many accusations of Chinese doctors received bribes from local companies to manufacture the drug for patients to consume types of medications have not been researched enough to ensure their quality, lack of side effects, in Africa there are accusations that the pharmaceutical companies doing research for medicines to children without obtaining the necessary permits.

    These notes pay some to demand more State intervention in the pharmaceutical industry, and not to be left in the hands of the private sector, in addition to that this intervention will ensure that violations do not occur, complete all the tests and procedures necessary to ensure the effectiveness of the medication, the absence of negative health disciples by use, economic reasons lies in the ability of the State to mobilize capital for the industry compared to the private sector. However, historical experience indicates that, during the past 100 years the private sector has produced almost all of the drugs and vaccines currently available in the market, but opponents build their rejection is always most medicines and vaccines that are produced during the past 100 years, thanks to the dominance of the private sector in this industry and away from the State.

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